Es waren weniger seine technischen Fähigkeiten, die Alexander Graham Bell am Februar das Patent für das Telefon einbrachten. meldet Alexander. Mitte des Jahrhunderts wird das Telefon gleich vierfach erfunden. Am Ende aber kassiert Alexander Graham Bell den Ruhm.
BR-NavigationDoch Bell veröffentlichte das Telefon zuerst und darum gilt er als Erfinder des Telefons. Wie Gray blieb auch der Deutsche Johann Philipp Reis weitgehend. Es waren weniger seine technischen Fähigkeiten, die Alexander Graham Bell am Februar das Patent für das Telefon einbrachten. Alexander Graham Bell was the first to secure a patent for the telephone, but only just. And it almost cost him his marriage Im Alter von elf Jahren beschloss.
Graham Bell Telefon Birthplace VideoCANAdooDAday - Alexander Graham Bell Invents the Telephone - CBC Kids Bell studierte bis Anatomie und Physiologie der menschlichen Stimme. Er versuchte Www.Lovepoint.De Login sichtbar zu machen, um auch Gehörlosen eine optische Sprachkontrolle zu ermöglichen. Februar
Subscribe for fascinating stories connecting the past to the present. He was an immigrant. Bell was born on March 3, , in Edinburgh, Scotland.
After attending school in Scotland and London, the year-old immigrated to Canada with his parents in Italian inventor and engineer Guglielmo Marconi developed, demonstrated and marketed the first successful long-distance wireless telegraph and in broadcast the first transatlantic radio signal.
On September 1, , a Boston woman named Emma Nutt made history—and all she had to do was pick up the phone. Her soothing voice helped usher in a new era of telecommunications and In his 84 years, Thomas Edison acquired a record number of 1, patents singly or jointly and was the driving force behind such innovations as the phonograph, the incandescent light bulb and one of the earliest motion picture cameras.
He was an impassioned champion of a strong federal government, and played a key role in defending Serbian-American engineer and physicist Nikola Tesla made dozens of breakthroughs in the production, transmission and application of electric power.
He invented the first alternating current AC motor and developed AC generation and transmission technology. In , Connecticut-born gun manufacturer Samuel Colt received a U.
With no formal training, he mastered the piano and became the family's pianist. His family was long associated with the teaching of elocution: his grandfather, Alexander Bell, in London, his uncle in Dublin , and his father, in Edinburgh, were all elocutionists.
His father published a variety of works on the subject, several of which are still well known, especially his The Standard Elocutionist ,  which appeared in Edinburgh in The Standard Elocutionist appeared in British editions and sold over a quarter of a million copies in the United States alone.
In this treatise, his father explains his methods of how to instruct deaf-mutes as they were then known to articulate words and read other people's lip movements to decipher meaning.
Bell's father taught him and his brothers not only to write Visible Speech but to identify any symbol and its accompanying sound. He could decipher Visible Speech representing virtually every language, including Latin , Scottish Gaelic , and even Sanskrit , accurately reciting written tracts without any prior knowledge of their pronunciation.
As a young child, Bell, like his brothers, received his early schooling at home from his father. At an early age, he was enrolled at the Royal High School , Edinburgh, Scotland, which he left at the age of 15, having completed only the first four forms.
His main interest remained in the sciences, especially biology, while he treated other school subjects with indifference, to the dismay of his father.
During the year he spent with his grandfather, a love of learning was born, with long hours spent in serious discussion and study. The elder Bell took great efforts to have his young pupil learn to speak clearly and with conviction, the attributes that his pupil would need to become a teacher himself.
In , not long before he departed for Canada with his family, Bell completed his matriculation exams and was accepted for admission to University College London.
His father encouraged Bell's interest in speech and, in , took his sons to see a unique automaton developed by Sir Charles Wheatstone based on the earlier work of Baron Wolfgang von Kempelen.
Bell was fascinated by the machine and after he obtained a copy of von Kempelen's book, published in German, and had laboriously translated it, he and his older brother Melville built their own automaton head.
Their father, highly interested in their project, offered to pay for any supplies and spurred the boys on with the enticement of a "big prize" if they were successful.
His efforts resulted in a remarkably lifelike head that could "speak", albeit only a few words. Intrigued by the results of the automaton, Bell continued to experiment with a live subject, the family's Skye Terrier , "Trouve".
With little convincing, visitors believed his dog could articulate "How are you, grandma? At age 19, Bell wrote a report on his work and sent it to philologist Alexander Ellis , a colleague of his father who would later be portrayed as Professor Henry Higgins in Pygmalion.
Dismayed to find that groundbreaking work had already been undertaken by Helmholtz who had conveyed vowel sounds by means of a similar tuning fork "contraption", Bell pored over the German scientist's book.
Working from his own erroneous mistranslation of a French edition,  Bell fortuitously then made a deduction that would be the underpinning of all his future work on transmitting sound, reporting: "Without knowing much about the subject, it seemed to me that if vowel sounds could be produced by electrical means, so could consonants, so could articulate speech.
It was a valuable blunder If I had been able to read German in those days, I might never have commenced my experiments!
In , when the Bell family moved to London,  Bell returned to Weston House as an assistant master and, in his spare hours, continued experiments on sound using a minimum of laboratory equipment.
Bell concentrated on experimenting with electricity to convey sound and later installed a telegraph wire from his room in Somerset College to that of a friend.
His younger brother, Edward "Ted," was similarly bed-ridden, suffering from tuberculosis. While Bell recovered by then referring to himself in correspondence as "A.
Bell" and served the next year as an instructor at Somerset College, Bath , England, his brother's condition deteriorated. Edward would never recover.
Upon his brother's death, Bell returned home in His older brother Melville had married and moved out. With aspirations to obtain a degree at University College London , Bell considered his next years as preparation for the degree examinations, devoting his spare time at his family's residence to studying.
Hull's private school for the deaf in South Kensington , London. His first two pupils were deaf-mute girls who made remarkable progress under his tutelage.
While his older brother seemed to achieve success on many fronts including opening his own elocution school, applying for a patent on an invention, and starting a family, Bell continued as a teacher.
However, in May , Melville died from complications due to tuberculosis, causing a family crisis. His father had also suffered a debilitating illness earlier in life and had been restored to health by a convalescence in Newfoundland.
Bell's parents embarked upon a long-planned move when they realized that their remaining son was also sickly.
Acting decisively, Alexander Melville Bell asked Bell to arrange for the sale of all the family property,  [N 7] conclude all of his brother's affairs Bell took over his last student, curing a pronounced lisp ,  and join his father and mother in setting out for the " New World ".
Reluctantly, Bell also had to conclude a relationship with Marie Eccleston, who, as he had surmised, was not prepared to leave England with him.
In , year-old Bell travelled with his parents and his brother's widow, Caroline Margaret Ottaway,  to Paris, Ontario ,  to stay with Thomas Henderson, a Baptist minister and family friend.
The property consisted of an orchard, large farmhouse, stable, pigsty, hen-house, and a carriage house , which bordered the Grand River. At the homestead, Bell set up his own workshop in the converted carriage house near to what he called his "dreaming place",  a large hollow nestled in trees at the back of the property above the river.
For his work, Bell was awarded the title of Honorary Chief and participated in a ceremony where he donned a Mohawk headdress and danced traditional dances.
After setting up his workshop, Bell continued experiments based on Helmholtz's work with electricity and sound. Bell's father was invited by Sarah Fuller , principal of the Boston School for Deaf Mutes which continues today as the public Horace Mann School for the Deaf ,  in Boston, Massachusetts, United States, to introduce the Visible Speech System by providing training for Fuller's instructors, but he declined the post in favour of his son.
Travelling to Boston in April , Bell proved successful in training the school's instructors. Returning home to Brantford after six months abroad, Bell continued his experiments with his "harmonic telegraph".
Unsure of his future, he first contemplated returning to London to complete his studies, but decided to return to Boston as a teacher. Teaching his father's system, in October , Alexander Bell opened his "School of Vocal Physiology and Mechanics of Speech" in Boston, which attracted a large number of deaf pupils, with his first class numbering 30 students.
She was later to say that Bell dedicated his life to the penetration of that "inhuman silence which separates and estranges". Several influential people of the time, including Bell, viewed deafness as something that should be eradicated, and also believed that with resources and effort, they could teach the deaf to read lips and speak known as oralism  and not use sign language , thus enabling their integration within the wider society from which many were often being excluded.
During this period, he alternated between Boston and Brantford, spending summers in his Canadian home. At Boston University, Bell was "swept up" by the excitement engendered by the many scientists and inventors residing in the city.
He continued his research in sound and endeavored to find a way to transmit musical notes and articulate speech, but although absorbed by his experiments, he found it difficult to devote enough time to experimentation.
While days and evenings were occupied by his teaching and private classes, Bell began to stay awake late into the night, running experiment after experiment in rented facilities at his boarding house.
Keeping "night owl" hours, he worried that his work would be discovered and took great pains to lock up his notebooks and laboratory equipment.
Bell had a specially made table where he could place his notes and equipment inside a locking cover. Deciding to give up his lucrative private Boston practice, Bell retained only two students, six-year-old "Georgie" Sanders, deaf from birth, and year-old Mabel Hubbard.
Each pupil would play an important role in the next developments. George's father, Thomas Sanders, a wealthy businessman, offered Bell a place to stay in nearby Salem with Georgie's grandmother, complete with a room to "experiment".
Although the offer was made by George's mother and followed the year-long arrangement in where her son and his nurse had moved to quarters next to Bell's boarding house, it was clear that Mr.
Sanders was backing the proposal. The arrangement was for teacher and student to continue their work together, with free room and board thrown in.
Having lost her hearing after a near-fatal bout of scarlet fever close to her fifth birthday,   [N 12] she had learned to read lips but her father, Gardiner Greene Hubbard , Bell's benefactor and personal friend, wanted her to work directly with her teacher.
By , Bell's initial work on the harmonic telegraph had entered a formative stage, with progress made both at his new Boston "laboratory" a rented facility and at his family home in Canada a big success.
Bell thought it might be possible to generate undulating electrical currents that corresponded to sound waves. But he had no working model to demonstrate the feasibility of these ideas.
In , telegraph message traffic was rapidly expanding and in the words of Western Union President William Orton , had become "the nervous system of commerce".
Antonio Meucci sent a telephone model and technical details to the Western Union telegraph company but failed to win a meeting with executives.
When he asked for his materials to be returned, in , he was told they had been lost. Two years later Bell, who shared a laboratory with Meucci, filed a patent for a telephone, became a celebrity and made a lucrative deal with Western Union.
Meucci sued and was nearing victory—the supreme court agreed to hear the case and fraud charges were initiated against Bell—when the Florentine died in The legal action died with him.
In March , Bell and Pollok visited the scientist Joseph Henry , who was then director of the Smithsonian Institution , and asked Henry's advice on the electrical multi-reed apparatus that Bell hoped would transmit the human voice by telegraph.
Henry replied that Bell had "the germ of a great invention". When Bell said that he did not have the necessary knowledge, Henry replied, "Get it!
However, a chance meeting in between Bell and Thomas A. Watson , an experienced electrical designer and mechanic at the electrical machine shop of Charles Williams, changed all that.
With financial support from Sanders and Hubbard, Bell hired Thomas Watson as his assistant, [N 14] and the two of them experimented with acoustic telegraphy.
On June 2, , Watson accidentally plucked one of the reeds and Bell, at the receiving end of the wire, heard the overtones of the reed; overtones that would be necessary for transmitting speech.
That demonstrated to Bell that only one reed or armature was necessary, not multiple reeds. This led to the "gallows" sound-powered telephone , which could transmit indistinct, voice-like sounds, but not clear speech.
In , Bell developed an acoustic telegraph and drew up a patent application for it. Since he had agreed to share U. Meanwhile, Elisha Gray was also experimenting with acoustic telegraphy and thought of a way to transmit speech using a water transmitter.
On February 14, , Gray filed a caveat with the U. Patent Office for a telephone design that used a water transmitter.
That same morning, Bell's lawyer filed Bell's application with the patent office. There is considerable debate about who arrived first and Gray later challenged the primacy of Bell's patent.
Bell was in Boston on February 14 and did not arrive in Washington until February Bell's patent ,, was issued to Bell on March 7, , by the U.
Patent Office. Bell's patent covered "the method of, and apparatus for, transmitting vocal or other sounds telegraphically He founded the Aerial Experiment Association in The first telephone had two parts: a transmitter and a receiver.
The transmitter comprised three parts—a drumlike device a cylinder with a covered end , a needle, and a battery. The covered end of the drumlike device was attached to the needle.
The needle was connected by wire to the battery, and the battery was connected by wire to a receiver.
When Bell spoke into the open end of the drumlike device, his voice made the paper and needle vibrate. The vibrations were then converted into an electric current which traveled along the wire to the receiver.
At age 11 he entered the Royal High School at Edinburgh , but he did not enjoy the compulsory curriculum, and he left school at age 15 without graduating.
In the family moved to London. Alexander passed the entrance examinations for University College London in June and matriculated there in the autumn.
Mabel had become deaf at age five as a result of a near-fatal bout of scarlet fever. Bell began working with her in , when she was 15 years old.
Despite a year age difference, they fell in love and were married on July 11, They had four children, Elsie — , Marian — , and two sons who died in infancy.
In Joseph Stearns had invented the duplex, a system that transmitted two messages simultaneously over a single wire. Inventors then sought methods that could send more than four; some, including Bell and his great rival Elisha Gray , developed designs capable of subdividing a telegraph line into 10 or more channels.
These so-called harmonic telegraphs used reeds or tuning forks that responded to specific acoustic frequencies. They worked well in the laboratory but proved unreliable in service.
Laman ini telah dibahagikan kepada empat bahagian: kediaman, profesional, perkhidmatan penting, dan pelbagai tugas. Pada tahun , Reuben H.
Donnelly dihasilkan direktori Yellow Pages berjenama pertama menampilkan nama perniagaan dan nombor telefon, yang dikategorikan mengikut jenis produk dan perkhidmatan yang disediakan.
Menjelang an, buku telefon, sama ada yang dikeluarkan oleh Sistem Bell atau penerbit swasta, di hampir setiap rumah dan perniagaan.
Tetapi dengan kedatangan Internet dan telefon bimbit, buku telefon telah diberikan sebahagian besarnya usang. Sebelum tahun , tidak ada nombor telefon khusus untuk mencapai balas pertama sekiranya berlaku kecemasan.
Yang berubah selepas siasatan kongres membawa kepada panggilan bagi penubuhan sistem tersebut di seluruh negara.
Pada 16 Februari , panggilan pertama diletakkan di Hayleyville, Alabama, di pejabat Alabama Telephone Company.
The rangkaian akan diperkenalkan ke bandar-bandar dan bandar lain perlahan-lahan; ia tidak sehingga bahawa sekurang-kurangnya separuh daripada semua rumah di Amerika mempunyai akses kepada rangkaian kecemasan Beberapa penyelidik mencipta peranti untuk mengenal pasti bilangan panggilan yang diterima, termasuk ahli-ahli sains di Brazil, Jepun, dan Greece, bermula pada an.
Walaupun perkhidmatan tersebut yang pada mulanya dijual sebagai perkhidmatan mahal ditambah, ID pemanggil hari ini adalah satu fungsi standard yang terdapat pada setiap telefon bimbit dan boleh didapati di kebanyakan mana-mana talian tetap.
Ingin mengetahui lebih lanjut tentang sejarah telefon? Terdapat beberapa sumber yang besar dalam media cetak dan dalam talian.
Berikut adalah beberapa untuk anda bermula:. Diakses tanggal Pemeliharaan CS1: Format tanggal link. Alexander Graham Bell. Sebagai seorang kanak-kanak, Bell, seperti abang-abangnya, dia telah menerima pembelajaran di rumah oleh ayahnya.
Walau bagaimanapun, pada pada usia yang muda, dia yang telah memasuki Royal High School , Edinburgh, Scotland, telah keluar pada usia 15 tahun dengan hanya menyiapkan empat borang pertama.
Minat utamanya masih kekal dalam sains, terutamanya subjek Biologi, sedangkan subjek sekolah yang lain dilayan dengan berbeza, demi mengecewakan permintaan ayahnya.
Sepanjang tahun dia luangkan bersama datuknya, perasaan suka belajar telah lahir, disebabkan menghabiskan masa yang berjam dalam perbincangan dan pembelajaran yang serius.
Bell yang lebih dewasa mengambil usaha-usaha yang baik supaya ada pelajar mudanya belajar untuk bercakap dengan jelas dan berkeyakinan, ciri-ciri itulah yang diperlukan oleh pelajarnya untuk menjadi seorang guru untuk diri sendiri.
Pada , tidak lama selepas dia bertolak ke Kanada bersama keluarganya, Aleck telah telah menyiapkan peperiksaan matrikulasi dan telah diterima kemasukanya ke University of London.Alexander Graham Bell, Scottish-born American inventor, scientist, and teacher of the deaf whose foremost accomplishments were the invention of the telephone () and refinement of the phonograph (). He also worked on use of light to transmit sound, development of . 7/3/ · The telegraf dan telefon kedua-dua sistem elektrik berasaskan dawai, dan kejayaan Alexander Graham Bell dengan telefon datang sebagai hasil langsung daripada usahanya untuk meningkatkan telegraf. Apabila dia mula bereksperimen dengan isyarat elektrik, telegraf telah menjadi cara ditubuhkan komunikasi untuk kira-kira 30 tahun. Walaupun sistem yang sangat berjaya, telegraf . 11/29/ · Alexander Graham Bell was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, on March 3, Bell’s father was a professor of speech elocution at the University of . meldet Alexander. In der Folge entstand die Bell Telephone Company, die sich später zum weltweit. Die Erfindung des Telefons geht auf mehrere Personen zurück. Wer hierbei als der wahre Im Telefon von Reis erfolgte die Wandlung von Tönen zu Stromänderungen mittels des Prinzips des Alexander Graham Bell kam im Laufe dieser Ereignisse in den Besitz von Meuccis Materialien und Unterlagen. Als Meucci Mitte des Jahrhunderts wird das Telefon gleich vierfach erfunden. Am Ende aber kassiert Alexander Graham Bell den Ruhm.