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Wer WarS The official site for Star Wars, featuring the latest on Star Wars: The Rise of Skywalker and The Mandalorian, as well as Star Wars series, video games, books, and more. This is a list of conflicts in Africa arranged by country, both on the continent and associated islands, including wars between African nations, civil wars, and wars involving non-African nations that took place within Africa. It encompasses colonial wars, wars of independence, secessionist and separatist conflicts, major episodes of national. Use your skills of deduction to identify the person represented by your opponent. By excluding attributes of outward appearance using yes/no-questions you successively get an idea who the other player must be. Whoever guesses the opponent's name correctly first, wins the game. Includes the rules, two nearly indestructible plastic playing boards with 24 turnable face cards (so you don't have to. A primer on the major wars that shaped the modern world England and France fought the Hundred Years' War for over years, from through It was a turning point In the New World during the 17th century, battles were raging as colonists struggled against Indigenous peoples. This is a list of conflicts in Africa arranged by country, both on the continent and associated islands, including wars between African nations, civil wars, and wars involving non-African nations that took place within Africa. It encompasses colonial wars, wars of independence, secessionist and separatist conflicts, major episodes of national.
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Zum Glück kennen wir uns nach einigen Durchgängen schon so gut aus, dass wir schon ahnen, was gesagt wird. Retrieved 6 September January NBC News. It is likely that the statistics on the Texan army size in both and underestimate the number of Tejanos who served in the army. 1/27/ · Select your cards carefully as you play them against the opponent%(33). This is a list of wars involving the United States. USA victory USA defeat Another result (e.g. a treaty or peace without a clear result, status quo ante bellum, result of civil or internal conflict, result unknown or indecisive) Ongoing conflict. This is a list of conflicts in Africa arranged by country, both on the continent and associated islands, including wars between African nations, civil wars, and wars involving non-African nations that took place within Africa. It encompasses colonial wars, wars of independence, secessionist and separatist conflicts, major episodes of national violence (riots, massacres, etc.), and global.

George W. Bush gambled on surging thousands more troops to the embattled country. It paid off. Al-Qaeda in Iraq is now a diminished force without territory.

Tucker December 14, Army Times. Retrieved January 20, National Review Online. Archived from the original on August 26, Retrieved August 2, Department of State.

February 5, Retrieved November 26, Retrieved May 16, UN News. April 18, Retrieved April 18, The Journal. December 15, Retrieved January 14, Bani Walid.

Reuters Africa. Retrieved January 24, The Guardian. The New York Times. Retrieved April 21, November 6, Retrieved June 21, Retrieved June 15, Military Times.

Retrieved April 29, May 21, The National. January 10, July 26, Armed conflicts involving the United States Armed Forces. List of conflicts in the U.

Cull Willem Drees Robert D. Matlock Jr. Thomas J. Painter William B. Pickett Ronald E. Powaski Yakov M.

Rabkin Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr. Category Commons Timeline List of conflicts. Post— Cold War conflicts in Europe.

Albanian Civil War unrest in Kosovo Macedonian inter-ethnic violence Wikipedia list article. Main article: List of conflicts in Chad.

Main article: List of conflicts in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Main article: List of conflicts in Eritrea. Main article: List of conflicts in Ethiopia.

Main article: List of conflicts in Somalia. Main article: List of conflicts in Algeria. Main article: List of conflicts in Egypt.

Main article: List of conflicts in Libya. Main article: List of conflicts in Morocco. Main article: List of conflicts in Sudan.

Main article: List of conflicts in Tunisia. Main article: List of conflicts in Ghana. Main article: List of conflicts in Mali.

Fixed-wing aircraft were first used militarily by the Italians in Libya on 23 October during the Italo-Turkish War for reconnaissance, soon followed by the dropping of grenades and aerial photography the next year.

By , their military utility was obvious. They were initially used for reconnaissance and ground attack. To shoot down enemy planes, anti-aircraft guns and fighter aircraft were developed.

Strategic bombers were created, principally by the Germans and British, though the former used Zeppelins as well. Manned observation balloons , floating high above the trenches, were used as stationary reconnaissance platforms, reporting enemy movements and directing artillery.

Balloons commonly had a crew of two, equipped with parachutes , [] so that if there was an enemy air attack the crew could parachute to safety.

At the time, parachutes were too heavy to be used by pilots of aircraft with their marginal power output , and smaller versions were not developed until the end of the war; they were also opposed by the British leadership, who feared they might promote cowardice.

Recognised for their value as observation platforms, balloons were important targets for enemy aircraft. To defend them against air attack, they were heavily protected by antiaircraft guns and patrolled by friendly aircraft; to attack them, unusual weapons such as air-to-air rockets were tried.

Thus, the reconnaissance value of blimps and balloons contributed to the development of air-to-air combat between all types of aircraft, and to the trench stalemate, because it was impossible to move large numbers of troops undetected.

The Germans conducted air raids on England during and with airships, hoping to damage British morale and cause aircraft to be diverted from the front lines, and indeed the resulting panic led to the diversion of several squadrons of fighters from France.

All German survivors were summarily executed by Baralong ' s crew on the orders of Lieutenant Godfrey Herbert , the captain of the ship.

The shooting was reported to the media by American citizens who were on board the Nicosia , a British freighter loaded with war supplies, which was stopped by U just minutes before the incident.

On 24 September, Baralong destroyed U- 41 , which was in the process of sinking the cargo ship Urbino. According to Karl Goetz, the submarine's commander, Baralong continued to fly the US flag after firing on U and then rammed the lifeboat—carrying the German survivors, sinking it.

Only 24 of the medical personnel, patients, and crew survived. Survivors reported that the U-boat surfaced and ran down the lifeboats, machine-gunning survivors in the water.

The U-boat captain, Helmut Patzig , was charged with war crimes in Germany following the war, but escaped prosecution by going to the Free City of Danzig , beyond the jurisdiction of German courts.

After the war, the German government claimed that approximately , German civilians died from starvation and disease during the war because of the Allied blockade.

All food consigned to Germany through neutral ports was to be captured and all food consigned to Rotterdam was to be presumed consigned to Germany.

The German army was the first to successfully deploy chemical weapons during the Second Battle of Ypres 22 April — 25 May , after German scientists working under the direction of Fritz Haber at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute developed a method to weaponize chlorine.

The effect of poison gas was not limited to combatants. Civilians were at risk from the gases as winds blew the poison gases through their towns, and they rarely received warnings or alerts of potential danger.

In addition to absent warning systems, civilians often did not have access to effective gas masks.

An estimated ,—, civilian casualties were caused by chemical weapons during the conflict and tens of thousands more along with military personnel died from scarring of the lungs, skin damage, and cerebral damage in the years after the conflict ended.

Many commanders on both sides knew such weapons would cause major harm to civilians but nonetheless continued to use them.

British Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig wrote in his diary, "My officers and I were aware that such weapons would cause harm to women and children living in nearby towns, as strong winds were common in the battlefront.

However, because the weapon was to be directed against the enemy, none of us were overly concerned at all. The war damaged chemistry's prestige in European societies, in particular the German variety.

The ethnic cleansing of the Ottoman Empire's Armenian population, including mass deportations and executions, during the final years of the Ottoman Empire is considered genocide.

The Armenians were intentionally marched to death and a number were attacked by Ottoman brigands. Other ethnic groups were similarly attacked by the Ottoman Empire during this period, including Assyrians and Greeks , and some scholars consider those events to be part of the same policy of extermination.

The German invaders treated any resistance—such as sabotaging rail lines—as illegal and immoral, and shot the offenders and burned buildings in retaliation.

In addition, they tended to suspect that most civilians were potential francs-tireurs guerrillas and, accordingly, took and sometimes killed hostages from among the civilian population.

The German army executed over 6, French and Belgian civilians between August and November , usually in near-random large-scale shootings of civilians ordered by junior German officers.

The German Army destroyed 15,—20, buildings—most famously the university library at Louvain —and generated a wave of refugees of over a million people.

Over half the German regiments in Belgium were involved in major incidents. British propaganda dramatising the Rape of Belgium attracted much attention in the United States, while Berlin said it was both lawful and necessary because of the threat of franc-tireurs like those in France in The British soldiers of the war were initially volunteers but increasingly were conscripted into service.

Surviving veterans, returning home, often found they could discuss their experiences only amongst themselves. Grouping together, they formed "veterans' associations" or "Legions".

A small number of personal accounts of American veterans have been collected by the Library of Congress Veterans History Project. About eight million men surrendered and were held in POW camps during the war.

All nations pledged to follow the Hague Conventions on fair treatment of prisoners of war , and the survival rate for POWs was generally much higher than that of combatants at the front.

At the Siege of Maubeuge about 40, French soldiers surrendered, at the battle of Galicia Russians took about , to , Austrian captives, at the Brusilov Offensive about , to , Germans and Austrians surrendered to Russians, and at the Battle of Tannenberg 92, Russians surrendered.

When the besieged garrison of Kaunas surrendered in , some 20, Russians became prisoners, at the battle near Przasnysz February—March 14, Germans surrendered to Russians, and at the First Battle of the Marne about 12, Germans surrendered to the Allies.

Prisoners from the Allied armies totalled about 1. From the Central Powers about 3. Most were captured just before the Armistice. The United States held 48, The most dangerous moment was the act of surrender, when helpless soldiers were sometimes gunned down.

A survivor said: "We were driven along like beasts; to drop out was to die. In Russia, when the prisoners from the Czech Legion of the Austro-Hungarian army were released in , they re-armed themselves and briefly became a military and diplomatic force during the Russian Civil War.

While the Allied prisoners of the Central Powers were quickly sent home at the end of active hostilities, the same treatment was not granted to Central Power prisoners of the Allies and Russia, many of whom served as forced labour , e.

Military and civilian observers from every major power closely followed the course of the war. Many were able to report on events from a perspective somewhat akin to modern " embedded " positions within the opposing land and naval forces.

In the Middle East, Arab nationalism soared in Ottoman territories in response to the rise of Turkish nationalism during the war, with Arab nationalist leaders advocating the creation of a pan-Arab state.

In , the Arab Revolt began in Ottoman-controlled territories of the Middle East in an effort to achieve independence. Lawrence forged the Iyasu photo.

A number of socialist parties initially supported the war when it began in August Italian nationalism was stirred by the outbreak of the war and was initially strongly supported by a variety of political factions.

One of the most prominent and popular Italian nationalist supporters of the war was Gabriele d'Annunzio , who promoted Italian irredentism and helped sway the Italian public to support intervention in the war.

Once war was declared, many socialists and trade unions backed their governments. In stark contrast to his predecessor , [] five days after his election he spoke of his determination to do what he could to bring peace.

Benedict XV found his abilities and unique position as a religious emissary of peace ignored by the belligerent powers.

The Treaty of London between Italy and the Triple Entente included secret provisions whereby the Allies agreed with Italy to ignore papal peace moves towards the Central Powers.

Consequently, the publication of Benedict's proposed seven-point Peace Note of August was roundly ignored by all parties except Austria-Hungary.

Head of the British Army, Lord Kitchener , was to review the cadets , but the imminence of the war prevented him.

General Horace Smith-Dorrien was sent instead. He surprised the two-or-three thousand cadets by declaring in the words of Donald Christopher Smith, a Bermudian cadet who was present ,.

In our ignorance I, and many of us, felt almost ashamed of a British General who uttered such depressing and unpatriotic sentiments, but during the next four years, those of us who survived the holocaust—probably not more than one-quarter of us—learned how right the General's prognosis was and how courageous he had been to utter it.

Many countries jailed those who spoke out against the conflict. In the US, the Espionage Act of and Sedition Act of made it a federal crime to oppose military recruitment or make any statements deemed "disloyal".

Publications at all critical of the government were removed from circulation by postal censors, [] and many served long prison sentences for statements of fact deemed unpatriotic.

A number of nationalists opposed intervention, particularly within states that the nationalists were hostile to. Although the vast majority of Irish people consented to participate in the war in and , a minority of advanced Irish nationalists staunchly opposed taking part.

Irish nationalists and Marxists attempted to pursue Irish independence, culminating in the Easter Rising of , with Germany sending 20, rifles to Ireland to stir unrest in Britain.

Other opposition came from conscientious objectors —some socialist, some religious—who refused to fight. In Britain, 16, people asked for conscientious objector status.

Even after the war, in Britain many job advertisements were marked "No conscientious objectors need apply". The Central Asian Revolt started in the summer of , when the Russian Empire government ended its exemption of Muslims from military service.

In , a series of French Army Mutinies led to dozens of soldiers being executed and many more imprisoned.

On 1—4 May , about , workers and soldiers of Petrograd , and after them, the workers and soldiers of other Russian cities, led by the Bolsheviks, demonstrated under banners reading "Down with the war!

Almost 50 people including three Italian soldiers were killed and over people arrested. In September , Russian soldiers in France began questioning why they were fighting for the French at all and mutinied.

The German Revolution of — led to the abdication of the Kaiser and German surrender. Conscription was common in most European countries.

However, it was controversial in English-speaking countries. It was especially unpopular among minority ethnic groups—especially the Irish Catholics in Ireland and Australia, [] and the French Catholics in Canada.

In Canada the issue produced a major political crisis that permanently alienated the Francophones. It opened a political gap between French Canadians , who believed their true loyalty was to Canada and not to the British Empire, and members of the Anglophone majority, who saw the war as a duty to their British heritage.

Australia had a form of conscription at the outbreak of the war, as compulsory military training had been introduced in However, the Defence Act provided that unexempted males could be called upon only for home defence during times of war, not overseas service.

Prime Minister Billy Hughes wished to amend the legislation to require conscripts to serve overseas, and held two non-binding referendums — one in and one in — in order to secure public support.

Hughes and his supporters were expelled from the party, forming the National Labor Party and then the Nationalist Party. Despite the referendum results, the Nationalists won a landslide victory at the federal election.

In Britain, conscription resulted in the calling up of nearly every physically fit man in Britain—six of ten million eligible. Of these, about , lost their lives.

Most deaths were those of young unmarried men; however, , wives lost husbands and , children lost fathers. The act specified that single men aged 18 to 40 years old were liable to be called up for military service unless they were widowed with children or ministers of a religion.

There was a system of Military Service Tribunals to adjudicate upon claims for exemption upon the grounds of performing civilian work of national importance, domestic hardship, health, and conscientious objection.

The law went through several changes before the war ended. Married men were exempt in the original Act, although this was changed in June The age limit was also eventually raised to 51 years old.

Recognition of work of national importance also diminished, and in the last year of the war there was some support for the conscription of clergy. Due to the political situation in Ireland, conscription was never applied there; only in England , Scotland and Wales.

In the United States, conscription began in and was generally well received, with a few pockets of opposition in isolated rural areas.

The draft was universal and included blacks on the same terms as whites, although they served in different units. Forms of resistance ranged from peaceful protest to violent demonstrations and from humble letter-writing campaigns asking for mercy to radical newspapers demanding reform.

The most common tactics were dodging and desertion, and many communities sheltered and defended their draft dodgers as political heroes.

Many socialists were jailed for "obstructing the recruitment or enlistment service". The most famous was Eugene Debs, head of the Socialist Party of America, who ran for president in from his prison cell.

In a number of radicals and anarchists challenged the new draft law in federal court, arguing that it was a direct violation of the Thirteenth Amendment's prohibition against slavery and involuntary servitude.

Like all the armies of mainland Europe, Austria-Hungary relied on conscription to fill its ranks.

Officer recruitment, however, was voluntary. This was much resented. The army has been described as being "run on colonial lines" and the Slav soldiers as "disaffected".

Thus conscription contributed greatly to Austria's disastrous performance on the battlefield. The non-military diplomatic and propaganda interactions among the nations were designed to build support for the cause, or to undermine support for the enemy.

For the most part, wartime diplomacy focused on five issues: propaganda campaigns ; defining and redefining the war goals, which became harsher as the war went on; luring neutral nations Italy, Ottoman Empire, Bulgaria, Romania into the coalition by offering slices of enemy territory; and encouragement by the Allies of nationalistic minority movements inside the Central Powers, especially among Czechs, Poles, and Arabs.

In addition, there were multiple peace proposals coming from neutrals, or one side or the other; none of them progressed very far.

The War was an unprecedented triumph for natural science. This triumph paved the way to other triumphs: improvements in transport, in sanitation, in surgery, medicine, and psychiatry, in commerce and industry, and, above all, in preparations for the next war.

The first tentative efforts to comprehend the meaning and consequences of modern warfare began during the initial phases of the war, and this process continued throughout and after the end of hostilities, and is still underway, more than a century later.

Historian Heather Jones argues that the historiography has been reinvigorated by the cultural turn in recent years. Scholars have raised entirely new questions regarding military occupation, radicalisation of politics, race, and the male body.

Furthermore, new research has revised our understanding of five major topics that historians have long debated: Why the war began, why the Allies won, whether generals were responsible for high casualty rates, how the soldiers endured the horrors of trench warfare, and to what extent the civilian homefront accepted and endorsed the war effort.

Memorials were erected in thousands of villages and towns. Many of these graveyards also have central monuments to the missing or unidentified dead, such as the Menin Gate memorial and the Thiepval Memorial to the Missing of the Somme.

The UK Government has budgeted substantial resources to the commemoration of the war during the period to The lead body is the Imperial War Museum.

World War I had a lasting impact on social memory. It was seen by many in Britain as signalling the end of an era of stability stretching back to the Victorian period , and across Europe many regarded it as a watershed.

A generation of innocent young men, their heads full of high abstractions like Honour, Glory and England, went off to war to make the world safe for democracy.

They were slaughtered in stupid battles planned by stupid generals. Those who survived were shocked, disillusioned and embittered by their war experiences, and saw that their real enemies were not the Germans, but the old men at home who had lied to them.

They rejected the values of the society that had sent them to war, and in doing so separated their own generation from the past and from their cultural inheritance.

This has become the most common perception of World War I, perpetuated by the art, cinema, poems, and stories published subsequently.

These beliefs did not become widely shared because they offered the only accurate interpretation of wartime events.

In every respect, the war was much more complicated than they suggest. It has been pointed out that, although the losses were devastating, their greatest impact was socially and geographically limited.

The many emotions other than horror experienced by soldiers in and out of the front line, including comradeship, boredom, and even enjoyment, have been recognised.

The war is not now seen as a 'fight about nothing', but as a war of ideals, a struggle between aggressive militarism and more or less liberal democracy.

It has been acknowledged that British generals were often capable men facing difficult challenges, and that it was under their command that the British army played a major part in the defeat of the Germans in a great forgotten victory.

Though these views have been discounted as "myths", [] [] they are common. They have dynamically changed according to contemporary influences, reflecting in the s perceptions of the war as "aimless" following the contrasting Second World War and emphasising conflict within the ranks during times of class conflict in the s.

The majority of additions to the contrary are often rejected. The social trauma caused by unprecedented rates of casualties manifested itself in different ways, which have been the subject of subsequent historical debate.

Though many participants did not share in the experiences of combat or spend any significant time at the front, or had positive memories of their service, the images of suffering and trauma became the widely shared perception.

Such historians as Dan Todman, Paul Fussell , and Samuel Heyns have all published works since the s arguing that these common perceptions of the war are factually incorrect.

The rise of Nazism and fascism included a revival of the nationalist spirit and a rejection of many post-war changes. This conspiracy theory of betrayal became common, and the German populace came to see themselves as victims.

The widespread acceptance of the "stab-in-the-back" theory delegitimised the Weimar government and destabilised the system, opening it to extremes of right and left.

The same occurred in Austria which counterfactually considered himself not being responsible for the outbreak of the war and claimed not to have suffered a military defeat.

Communist and fascist movements around Europe drew strength from this theory and enjoyed a new level of popularity.

These feelings were most pronounced in areas directly or harshly affected by the war. Adolf Hitler was able to gain popularity by using German discontent with the still controversial Treaty of Versailles.

The 'Age of Totalitarianism' included nearly all the infamous examples of genocide in modern history, headed by the Jewish Holocaust, but also comprising the mass murders and purges of the Communist world, other mass killings carried out by Nazi Germany and its allies, and also the Armenian Genocide of One of the most dramatic effects of the war was the expansion of governmental powers and responsibilities in Britain, France, the United States, and the Dominions of the British Empire.

To harness all the power of their societies, governments created new ministries and powers. New taxes were levied and laws enacted, all designed to bolster the war effort ; many have lasted to the present.

Similarly, the war strained the abilities of some formerly large and bureaucratised governments, such as in Austria-Hungary and Germany.

In Austria, for example, most pigs were slaughtered, so at war's end there was no meat. To pay for purchases in the United States, Britain cashed in its extensive investments in American railroads and then began borrowing heavily from Wall Street.

President Wilson was on the verge of cutting off the loans in late , but allowed a great increase in US government lending to the Allies.

After , the US demanded repayment of these loans. The repayments were, in part, funded by German reparations that, in turn, were supported by American loans to Germany.

This circular system collapsed in and some loans were never repaid. Macro- and micro-economic consequences devolved from the war.

Families were altered by the departure of many men. With the death or absence of the primary wage earner, women were forced into the workforce in unprecedented numbers.

At the same time, industry needed to replace the lost labourers sent to war. This aided the struggle for voting rights for women. World War I further compounded the gender imbalance, adding to the phenomenon of surplus women.

The deaths of nearly one million men during the war in Britain increased the gender gap by almost a million: from , to 1,, The number of unmarried women seeking economic means grew dramatically.

In addition, demobilisation and economic decline following the war caused high unemployment. The war increased female employment; however, the return of demobilised men displaced many from the workforce, as did the closure of many of the wartime factories.

In Britain, rationing was finally imposed in early , limited to meat, sugar, and fats butter and margarine , but not bread. The new system worked smoothly.

From to , trade union membership doubled, from a little over four million to a little over eight million.

Britain turned to her colonies for help in obtaining essential war materials whose supply from traditional sources had become difficult.

Geologists such as Albert Ernest Kitson were called on to find new resources of precious minerals in the African colonies.

Kitson discovered important new deposits of manganese , used in munitions production, in the Gold Coast. Article of the Treaty of Versailles the so-called "war guilt" clause stated Germany accepted responsibility for "all the loss and damage to which the Allied and Associated Governments and their nationals have been subjected as a consequence of the war imposed upon them by the aggression of Germany and her allies.

However neither of them interpreted it as an admission of war guilt. However, "Allied experts knew that Germany could not pay" this sum.

The total sum was divided into three categories, with the third being "deliberately designed to be chimerical" and its "primary function was to mislead public opinion This figure could be paid in cash or in kind coal, timber, chemical dyes, etc.

In addition, some of the territory lost—via the treaty of Versailles—was credited towards the reparation figure as were other acts such as helping to restore the Library of Louvain.

David Andelman notes "refusing to pay doesn't make an agreement null and void. The bonds, the agreement, still exist.

The war contributed to the evolution of the wristwatch from women's jewellery to a practical everyday item, replacing the pocketwatch , which requires a free hand to operate.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. III biplane fighters near Douai , France, Peace treaties. Formation of new countries in Europe and the Middle East Transfer of German colonies and territories, Partitioning the former Ottoman Empire , Austria-Hungary and the Russian Empire , transfer of territories to other countries.

British Empire. Theatres of World War I. EAN: Spielartbezeichnung: Elektronisches Brettspiel. Lizenz: Cinderella. Nicht für Kinder unter 36 Monaten geeignet.

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